Childhood obesity affects children and adolescents. This medical condition occurs when a child’s weight is higher than the normal weight for their height and age. This condition is specifically of concern due to the more weight, the children often commence on a journey to serious health problems which were initially confined to adults only. These conditions include diabetes, hypertension and high cholesterol levels. Sometimes childhood obesity causes emotional problems such as depression and poor self-esteem. The best techniques to decrease this medical condition is through the improvement of diet and active involvement in exercises. Treatment and prevention interventions are essential in the protection of the child’s health presently and in the days to come (de Onis, 2014).
However, it should be noted that not all children who appear to have extra pounds can be categorized as obese or overweight. Some children generally have body frames, which are larger than normal. Additionally, children tend to have varying amounts of body fat at different developmental stages. This makes it difficult to recognize if a child’s weight is a health concern. Therefore, doctors are instrumental in determining this by the utilization of growth charts and other tests if required.The causes of childhood are mostly related to lifestyle issues. Less physical activity and too much intake of calories from drinks and food remain the major contributor to this condition. There are also contributing factors which are genetic and hormonal that equally play a role (Reinehr, 2013).
The risk factors of childhood obesity include; diet, inadequate exercise, family history, psychological factors, family factors and socioeconomic factors make children with the condition. Family history comes in when a child is from a family mainly of overweight individuals, he or she is highly likely to be overweight mostly in surroundings where high-calorie meals are available with less physical activity. Some of the kids may eat more than normal amounts in a bid to cope with problems especially emotional such as stress. These tendencies are sometimes obtained from the parents. There are physical, social and emotional complications associated with childhood obesity.
The physical complications include, type 2 diabetes, which affects the body’s metabolism of sugar; metabolism syndrome, which is a collection of other conditions, risking the child to develop heart disease, diabetes and other health issues. Respiratory illnesses such as asthma, sleep complications, and early onset of puberty are also related to childhood obesity. There are also complications, associated with overweight, which affect the children socially and emotionally; depression, poor self-esteem and other problems related to behavior and learning (Kulesa, 2014). Basing on the discussion above, childhood obesity can be considered one of the most serious conditions with insufficient focus. Therefore, there is need for conduction of more research on this medical condition.
Utilization of literature Review of Research
A research project comprises of a crucial component, the literature review. The section provides a systematic evaluation and analysis of the available knowledge and information, which is significant in providing an answer to research questions. Literature review necessitates the utilization of scholarly resources and other primary sources. Occasionally, materials such as newspapers, magazines, films, video tapes, some books and other secondary sources are utilized. The primary sources are the origin of the material under study, significant sources relevant to the specific subject. Quite a good number of the primary sources are fist-hand information directly from a researcher after a study or a witness who experienced a specific event. Secondary sources are resources associated with knowledge and information which was initially presented elsewhere, be it a book, article or any other source of information (Walls, 2014).
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A research can only be considered to be good if it is directed by the review of the already available and relevant information. It offers a mechanism via whichstudies are considered to be cumulative activities. The applications of literature review do not change no matter the kind of study used. It is crucial in testing the study questions in contrast to the already existing knowledge on the study topic. It is crucial in determining if the study question has been answered in a different study. If the study has already been carried out, there is demand for alteration or modification of the study question. If the study question is partly unanswered by a different researcher, then the study should seek the already existing knowledge on the topic and the systematic development of knowledge on the same (Reinehr, 2013). It helps the researcher to identify gaps in the knowledge of the topic and possible openings for research already identified by others and the intention of bridging the gap.
The researcher is also able to find if there is a consensus on the related concerns or the presence of a fundamental debate on issues and the various positions available. The researcher can identify the most fruitful aspect of the research by the use of literature review and the aspects already indicated by the other researchers’ work. It is important to note that there is no issue that is fully black and white. One can only determine what is satisfactory, relevant or essential in the research context.
Ethical Considerations for Data Collection
In primary research, there is a collection of data about the research subject from the real world directly. There are ethics involved with this kind of research. Mostly in involves interviews, analysis, surveys and observations. During conduction of research, there is a need for awareness of the ethics involved in the research activity. Consideration should be given to a number of points. Firstly, one should obtain permission of the people involved in the research. However, not all kinds require permits, for example analysis of publicly available things such as commercials, one does not need author permission. Secondly, one should not carry out activities that inflict harm to the study subjects, this requires attention to detail and sensitivity. Objectivity is crucial so that personal biases and opinions do not hinder research and fairness is upheld. The research subjects should be notified if the research results are anonymous or not. The research subjects should be selected based on the research objectives and not merely easy accessibility. Finally, some kinds of research require approval from the ethics review committee to ensure there are no violations of the ethical considerations (Walls, 2014).
Data Revelations in terms of Statistical Analysis.
Data analysis involves the systematic application of statistical and logical strategies to explain and illustrate, summarize and recap, and evaluate the collected data. Statistical data aids in the construction of inductive inferences from the collected data and helps to distinguish the signal (the data of interest) from the disturbances (statistical fluctuations) available in the data. Often data analysis is a continuous iterative process where information is collected and analyzed simultaneously. Researchers basically analyze data to derive patterns in observations via the total data collection phase. It is crucial to maintain data integrity through accurate and appropriate evaluation of research results.
Inaccurate statistical analyses distort results misleading casual readers.There is significant information and skillsthat researchers should be equipped with in line to data analysis. These include; theacquisition of the required skills for analysis, ability to concurrently select data collection means and appropriate analysis and they should be able to draw unbiased inferences. The researchers should be aware of inappropriate subgroup analysis, application of acceptable norms for different fields, determination of statistical significance and the provision of honest and accurate analysis. Finally, the researchers should have information on data presentation methods, data recording means and the extent of statistical analysis (Walls, 2014).
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the Childhood Obesity Study
There are numerous programs and policies tasked with the addressing of the childhood obesity condition. However the major question is which of the programs are the most promising and pave way for more research. Childhood obesity is a fundamental health concern in the current world. The enhanced prevalence, risks the children for numerous diseases and other related health problems (Reinehr, 2013). There is sufficient information on the childhood obesity, but there are niches for studies, especially the application of the available knowledge in actual behavior change towards making healthy choices.
In conclusion, the literature review provides an evaluative report of the researches available on the research topic. It describes, summarizes analyzes and clarifies the information. Additionally, it provides a theoretical basis for the study and aids in determining the nature of an individual’s study. It points out and clarifies the connection between the available information and the subject under study.The literature review also offers the study information, points out the need for the research, helps curb research multiplication and maps the research on the available knowledge.Moreover, it enlightens the researcher, describes and highlights flaws of prior studies on the research topic. It is also crucial in the identification of gaps in prior studies and offers an illustrationsof how the study adds to the comprehension and knowledge of the field of research. Finally, literature review is significant in the refinement, refocus and even alteration or modification of the research topic. This section of the research is basically the backbone of research. Therefore, this section should be tacked carefully and not merely clustering of words.