Nov 9, 2018 in Research

Computer Systems Critique


The main purpose of the paper is to explore the analysis of the information system at DoughNut Kart. There is a hypothesis that the company was mainly focused on the sale of beverages, donuts, snacks and cookies. Thus, having this in mind, it is evident that the enterprise needs a comparatively sophisticated information system. The owner of the company has once decided that he is going to introduce an information system that is based on tablet hardware and software.

Process Analysis

The company followed a system development cycle in order to come up with the implementation of a new system. It was effectively developed, and the phases that were followed up to the final implementation were very well planned. The company employed a standard process of development, called system development life cycle (SLDC). According to Khalid & Noor, “the SDLC has seven stages comprising of the planning phase, the analysis phase, the development phase, testing phase, design phase, implementation phase and maintenance phase. However, the standard SDLC process varied. The traditional life cycle approaches were substituted with alternative approaches and implementation frameworks that sought to prevail over the main deficiencies of the traditional SDLC process.”

The model that the company used in this case was the waterfall method. It was used because it is a reasonable approach, when considering the costs involved in an information system. The model included three carts with a supposed pilot group, which tested a prepared section of the framework. If the pilot succeeded, three trucks would be added to the framework consistently. One would contend that it would take a drawn out stretch of time, so that expenses for this framework would not be defended sufficiently. Fruitful execution of Doughnut Kart was guaranteed because the data framework controlled all key parts of the association’s exercises. With all the factors taken into account, these were the primary focuses, with regards to the methodology of SDLC.

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Effectiveness of Initial Planning

The first phase of planning was effective, as well as efficient. It involved the plan of all essential components of the system that was on the way to implementation. It enhanced the improvement of the data framework, associated with the execution, outline, and arrangement. Additionally, the planning took place after the calendar year and considered general prerequisites. Unexpectedly, it was conceivable to claim that the improvement with least programming and fittings did not require such a significant methodology. Clearly, the improvement was an accurate piece of execution. It is evident that improvement showed the way data framework was executed. Thus, it can be said that the advancement of the data framework ought to have matched with the destinations of arrangement and configuration.

Additionally, the initial planning had some added advantages. It made the advancement satisfactory, concerning the outside variables, despite the fact that the productivity of data framework had a tendency to be lower. Having portrayed the fundamental purposes of the data framework improvement, it was critical to contextualize these discoveries. 

Risk Assessment

The company ensured that they used the acceptable risk criteria to assess possible risks in the entire process. The thought of not expanding the lifetime hazard was the driving force in this project. It was used as a heuristic measure. It gave a numerical premise to making an unimportant increment in danger. The company ensured that, in practice, there was a genuine zero-danger that was conceivable, just with the concealment of the threat causing action. Further examination of the situations, surrounding the project, distinguished various alternatives. For example, the act of differentiating non-infectious ones from irresistible squanders.

Use of Holism and Reductionism

The company implemented the use of holism and reductionism in an effective manner. Reductionism rests on the premises that the nature of complex entities is best understood by breaking them into more fundamental parts. It is a philosophical supposition that any complex system is nothing other than the parts making it. It is strongly based on the perspective of causality. Any phenomenon is best understood by looking at the relationship between its fundamental constituents. Holism holds that addressing it as a whole, rather than the constituent parts superiorly understand the entirety. The constituent parts are lesser than the whole; those properties of a given system cannot be understood by the parts alone.

Firstly, the tenets of holism and reductionism were employed in solving various problems in various disciplines, such as medicine, leadership, conflict management, and engineering among others. While the proponents of reductionism understand a system by disintegrating it into its constituent components, holism understands the system by looking at its interdependence and connectedness. The interrelationships between the parts helped in understanding the execution of the entire framework. Comprehensive quality was the model of taking care of the issue, as it considered the entire framework as more imperative than the constituents.

Advocates of reductionism have it that knowing the basic is the fundamental rule in understanding the complex. Furthermore, advocates of comprehensive quality hold that the sum is more essential than simply the parts it is made of. The suspicion supporting comprehensive quality is that properties of the segments help in understanding the entirety. Understanding of the properties, then again, must be comprehended if the elements of the entire are examined. It backs the act of taking a preview at the greater picture and not simply the parts of a greater thing.

Ethical Perspective

There was no violation of employees’ rights or any other party involved in the process. In the development of the system itself, the company specified that dichotomy of limits inside the framework was a typical sensation. It was not coherent from the point of view of the outline and advancement. However, the business viewpoint clearly expected that a minor change in execution had a huge quality to the incomes too. At long last, these were the general focuses concerning support of data framework and ethical practices.


Concerning the progressions in an organization and human resource division, there was a significant change regarding various matters. A few workers were released in light of their low level of abilities in the wake of preparation and implementation of the new system. As a rule, human asset division was influenced by the extension of obligations. It suggested a conceivable cutback methodology and the mandatory increment in pay rates, as the estimation of representatives was significantly higher. In such a way, human asset area and essential operations of the Doughnut Kart was impacted by the execution of the data framework.


The leadership that worked on the implementation of this process was effective. Firstly, they ensured that every worker was on track according to the rules laid down by the organization. The association arranged around an approach, which obliged all workers to be in charge of the genuine monitoring of all information. It is also evident that the workers never had to specify some other measures of supplies, incomes, and so forth, with the exception of genuine ones. Therefore, extra approaches, which covered the instances of information misfortune or whatever other crisis circumstances, were likewise required. Shockingly, such extreme changes in approaches may have led the association to a more elevated amount of benchmarks. No one would have prevented that inward association from any claim that any other organization could underpin in its general development. Consequently, refinement of arrangements passed on potential development of the association. Thus, the leadership was in perfect form of operation.


Everybody in the organization who was in need of training acquired skills through the relevant training. There was no discrimination whatsoever. What the organization needed was cooperation. The company realized that it was crucial to schedule the training of workers, as well. It was important to note that testing included some tests within the course. These tests served the function of plowing success, so that the training could be extended or shortened according to the tests’ results. After every single test, mistakes were revised. Furthermore, empirical perspective of the training was also essential. That is why final test was conducted unexpectedly, so that the employees were not aware of being tested. Such practical approach led to more accurate results, so that revision program could be scoped adequately.


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