Behavioral Consultative Model
Supervision refers to the development of individualized learning plans for the supervisees working with the client. The methodical way of implementing supervision is referred to as model. Supervision beliefs, routines and practices emerged when the therapists wished to train others. However, the initial focus was on the efficiency of the certain theories, such as psychodynamic, behavioral, or client-centered therapy. The practice of the supervision has experienced development and spread into education, social work, and youth- and child-care. Moreover, various indirect service delivery mechanisms that integrate a mediator-based approach have been extensively presented in the psychological literature, and they are often represented in professional writing and research in different journals.
However, this paper discusses the consultative behavioral model, which is a supervision, based on three journal articles The Evolution Behavior Consultation; Analyzing the treatment efficacy of technical assistance model for offering behavioral consultation to schools; and Using behavioral consultation to reduce challenging behavior in the classroom.
Consultative Behavioral Model
The three articles review the consultative behavioral model. Behavioral consultation has witnessed several years of implementation in both practice and research in the applied settings. According to Kratochwill, Sladeczeck, & Plunge (1995), various descriptions of behavioral consultation have been discussed for many years. Kratochwill, Sladeczeck, & Plunge referred to behavioral consultation as model in which the mediators, who are likely to be teachers or parents, work in both school and home settings. Kratochwill, Sladeczeck, & Plunge argued that the regarding triadic model school psychologists have been widely disseminated via the in-service training network module. According to Kratochwill, Sladeczeck, & Plunge, behavioral consultation is a 12-step problem solving series for school-based scenarios. They state the most commonly cited behavioral model is linked to the applications in the school psychology profession. This model is also theoretically associated to the social learning. Moreover, it has frequently been associated with ecological framework for the delivery of service.
Current Research on the Model
The theory of research and practice of behavioral consultation witnessed significant development. Nevertheless, Schmidt & Monaghan argued that the developments in these areas is different. The theory and research have more advances than the implementation of consultative behavioral model. The recent developments have occurred in consultation, resulting in direct content and scope of behavioral consultative model. For example, research advances have taken place in such areas as standardization, definition of consultation, training, psychometric criteria, integrity, and the criteria for outcomes assessment.
Schmidt & Monaghan’s study offered a liberal framework for the definition of behavioral consultation. According to Schmidt & Monaghan, recent studies have featured the indirect service delivery as a key identifying aspect in problem solving. Such a liberal framework enables a significant range of mediators in consultation. The traditional framework for consultative behavioral model has incorporated the teacher, acting as a mediator, as the key focus. Modern studies have begun integrating parent-based mediators. According to Schmidt & Monaghan, the parent-based behavioral consultative approach is optional and continues to transform research in this area. Some recent studies have also extended the parent-based approach, and used combined both teacher-based and parent-based approaches. Schmidt & Monaghan argued that the main objective of the conjoint consultative approach is to enable joint problem solving; provide generalization of behavioral change; and increase the likelihood of outcome impacts via treatment implementation across school and home settings.
In addition, the current research focuses on the integration of technology in the consultative behavioral model studies. The researchers have referred to this as technology training. Schmidt & Monaghan state that the framework enables the expansion of consultation into the technological sector. The technology training study approaches is involved either jointly with the consultation problem solving or independently. The benefits of the technology training approach are that it incorporates extra information for the mediator, and provides a conceptual framework concerning the way of the process implementation.
Lastly, the modern studies are also focused on peer-mediated approaches. In such approaches, the peers function as consulters with their own peer clients. The frequent applications of the peer-mediated approach include peers as reinforcing agents, as tutors, or as enablers of generalization.
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Is the Model Effective?
Wilkinson argues that consultative behavioral model has emerged as an effective approach to the management of challenging behavior. According to Wilkinson, schools can benefit from collaboration with regional universities while designing efficient interventions for children showing challenging behavior. The previous studies indicated that there is a gap in the area of behavioral consultation. Several mediators, especially teachers, are hesitant to adopt evidence-based practices regardless of their showed efficacy. Consequently, some mediators lacking technical skills of adopting and sustaining new practices might resort to the old-style and punitive approaches of supervising challenging behavior. While seeking help from the local universities, mediators can overcome the challenges of attempting linked to evidence-based practices in their school systems. Wilkinson’s study showed that with the ongoing technical and consultation assistance, mediators could effectively develop and implement consultative behavioral interventions.
The behavioral consultative model emphasizes training and empowers mediators to develop and implement behavioral intervention plans, which are derived from evidence-based practices. Giving mediators the leading role in the process seems to encourage them to accept the model. This is likely to foster successful implementation of behavioral support strategies.
How the Model Works
According to Wilkinson, the social learning has acted as the basis for the development of behavioral consultation models. The models based on social learnings mostly involve four steps of solving a problem, where the interviews frequently serve as the foundation for consultation. The first stage is referred to as problem identification, involving the detection of problems. In addition, it also involves the implementation of assessment tactics in order to establish the guideline for the problem behaviors. The second step is the problem analysis, which is implemented in the context of an interview process. It essentially integrates the assessment of behavior through descriptive assessment. The third step is plan implementation. This step incorporates the implementation of the intervention by the mediators. The last step is plan evaluation, involving another interview through which the mediators assess the results of an intervention program.
How It Has Model Been Used
The behavioral consultation model has been utilized majorly within mediator-based problem solving focus. For example, Kratochwill, Sladeczeck, & Plunge reported using the model in studies involving mainstream kindergarten and 8th grade settings. This is congruent with the archetypal application of behavioral consultation, in which school-based professionals engage in consultative problem solving process through the four steps.
In addition to the application of problem solving in the applied scenarios, behavioral consultative models have been often used in pre-referral interventions. According to Kratochwill, Sladeczeck, & Plunge, pre-referral intervention programs have been adopted explicitly in order to develop optional services for the children participating in special education service delivery. The main objective of pre-referral intervention is to engage regular education mediators in a meaningful consultation problem-solving process expecting that the problems might be alleviated in the regular classroom
The model was used extensively in the Relevant Educational Assessment and Intervention Model (RE-AIM). The RE-AIM was a government-financed program of continuing education in curriculum-based assessment for the school support personnel.
The model was part of the service delivery in the school districts, which have received acknowledgement from the American Psychological Association, and the National Association of School Psychologists. Kratochwill, Sladeczeck, & Plunge’ study documented the application of the behavioral consultative model within the possibility of psychological services in the Amphitheatric School District in Arizona. Several school-based uses of the behavioral consultative model are also available. These uses represent a modern range and scope of the model in the applied settings. However, according to Chitiyo & Wheeler, the range of consultees has been limited through school-based applications.
What Was Learned From the Articles?
The three articles agree that the behavioral consultative supervision model is a well-established method of delivering professional services to the teachers and students. They illustrate different procedures through which the support personnel can fill the gap between research and practice, and implement necessary interventions within a consultative framework. According to the articles, it is evident that integrating these procedures into the consultation process will improve the effectiveness of services, which are designed to meet the education needs of teachers and students.
Was the Research Conducted Good or Bad?
The three studies conducted by the researchers showed positive results. The study of Kratochwill, Sladeczeck, & Plunge (1995) relied on secondary sources and qualitative analysis, which implied that the researcher might have been influenced by the personal opinions. Wilkinson and Chitiyo & Wheeler used evidence-based approach in their studies, which provided them with highly effective intervention strategies.
This paper has discussed the consultative behavioral model, which is a supervision one, based on three journal articles. The behavioral consultation is a model, in which the mediators work in both school and home settings. Current research on the model has focused on the integration of technology and peer-mediated approaches. The behavioral consultative model emphasizes training and empowering mediators to develop and implement behavioral intervention plans, derived from evidence-based practices. RE-AIM was applied in problem solving in the respective settings as well as service delivery in the school districts.