Human Evolution

Human evolution is the progressive method of transformation by which modern humans are believed to originate from the apelike forebears. The systematic proof confirms that the body and behavioral features were obtained by the apelike ancestors and developed over a span of roughly six million years. The hominin depicts the collection comprising of contemporary individuals, extinct hominid classes, and all our direct predecessors entailing the members of the species Homo, Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and Ardipithecus. The hominid’ collection, on the other hand, consist of all contemporary and great apes: present individuals, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans with their next ancestors. The following essay compares and contrasts the hominins that lived about 2 million years ago in the area of Central East Africa. The hominins under consideration entail Homo habilis, Homo Rudolfensis, and Paranthropus Boisei. The essay further defines the most probable ancestry to the modern humans.

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Both heredity and remains confirm that human evolution occurred in Africa. The first hominins were significantly shorter than the contemporary persons. The Homo habilis, Homo Rudolfensis, and Paranthropus Boisei represent hominins that existed in the region of Central East Africa. The three hominins have numerous similar and different physical and behavioral traits. The Homo habilis are one of the first members of the family Homo with a slightly bigger brain case and tinier appearance and teeth than adult hominin classes. The hominin retained ape-like features including long arms and moderate prognathic face. The initial Homo habilis remains were discovered in Olduvai Gorge in the similar stratigraphic deposit as principal kinds of pebble Oldowan  implements. Though, the remains of Homo Rudolfensis and Paranthropus Boisei were found at Koobi Fora in the Lake Turkana Basin. Although Homo habilis relics are observed near the stone gears, they are related to the hominins accessories development. Besides, Paranthropus boisei remains were also discovered near the stone tools making a final resolution of which kind of challenges a tool-maker faced. Since Homo habilis had a larger brain and smaller teeth than Paranthropus boisei, many scientists consider them to be the earliest toolmakers.

Tooth erosion analysis offers that the food of Homo habilis was nutritional and resourceful. They were able to consume an extensive variety of food, comprising several rougher nourishments, such as foliage, woody vegetation, and certain prey flesh. The studies show that they did not eat regularly or have thick substances, such as hard nuts or germs, parched meat or very tough roots.

Unlike Paranthropus Boisei, the Homo habilis was the first maker of stone tools earning the nickname the Handy Man. Homo rudolfensis might have employed rock devices to prepare their meals. Although no associated archeological evidence was found with Homo rudolfensis remains, it is believed that they were living at a time when human ancestors started making tools. Homo habilis coexisted with other bipedal primates like Paranthropus boisei and prospered for many years. However, due to the discovery tools and other important ancient changes, Homo habilis became a forerunner of an entire line of species whereas Paranthropus Boisei and their relatives disappeared from the record. 

The last bulk and form of Paranthropus boisei’s cranium and the mandibles had been adopted for eating incredibly hard, stiff products, such as nuts and roots. The consumption of those products would have required Paranthropus boisei to generate considerable grinding energies on the molars and premolars to crack down those ‘uneatable’ foods. Hence, the experts agree that the food eaten by Paranthropus boisei consisted mainly of thick vegetal diets. The described predisposition for the firm foods is believed to illustrate how the hominin was capable of existing without extinction.

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Homo habilis has a comparatively larger intellect, an erect forehead, and frailer crest edges compared to Homo Rudolfensis. Additionally, the face and jaws of Homo habilis were smaller and less projecting than those of the other hominins. According to Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Homo rudolfensis differs from Homo habilis in their brain cavity, elongated appearance, and an enormous molar and premolar teeth. Homo rudolfensis possessed extended and broader molars compared to Homo habilis. Their teeth were merely tinier than those observed in Paranthropus Boisei. Homo rudolfensis did not have the heavily-built jaw and strong jaw muscle attachments found in the healthy early humans. These anatomical variations apparently symbolize mixed food consumption of Homo rudolfensis and Homo habilis. Advanced analytical examinations exhibit changes in the appearance of the jaw of Homo habilis and Homo Rudolfensis that are sometimes equal to the jaw differences between humans and chimpanzees.

Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis lived predominantly in a plain settings. The environment was growing colder and harder at that time. The extensive investigations were carried to study the intake of the varieties. It was found that the tooth appearance presumably proved that the meat was consumed more often than the plants and other food. Numerous anthropologists believe that the dimension of present differences between Homo rudolfensis and Homo habilis is a consequence of intimate dimorphism, and, hence, Homo rudolfensis are males of the class Homo habilis. Others state that the characteristics yielded between the two kinds are identical as seen in every Homo and the examples are too definite. Furhermore, if they are accurate, then, at least, two separate varieties of Homo existed contemporaneously in East Africa. The contradicting research was made indicating that the Homo habilis and homo rudolfensis were similar hominins. Simply, the first type was female part while the second one was male. The researchers consider rudolfensis to be the ancestors of Homo habilis with a fall in intellect scope.

If taking into consideration three hominins, Homo habilis appear to be ancestral to modern human being due to the numerous factors. The hominin was named as the handyman due to its ability to use tools. The hominin is believed to have learned the apparatuses to apply them to slaughter and skin creatures. It resembles a human approach to treat animals for survival. According to Choi, the hominin had posterior teeth that were lesser than those of Homo rudolfensis and Paranthropus boisei, but substantially bigger than those of human beings. Habilis possessed a less bulging appearance if compared to the others. Importantly, the hominin had the humanlike brain. 

The projection of Broca's region that is necessary for the language is evident in Homo habilis brain parts symbolizing they might have been able to communicate, unlike the others. Another notable feature that may relate Homo habilis as the possible ancestry of modern humans is that an average homo habilis was 127cm in height and about 45kgs. Besides, the intelligence capability and social organization of Homo habilis were more sophisticated than Homo rudolfensis and Paranthropus Boisei had. Homo habilis had been evolving for half a million years or more growing into a bigger, sturdier, creative classes of people. Lastly, the feature that makes Homo habilis more ancestral to modern people is their bipedal locomotive nature that enabled them to walk upright. This is a vivid characteristic of human beings. Therefore, Homo habilis represents are more likely to be the ancestors of Homo sapiens in comparison to Homo Rudolfensis and Paranthropus Boisei.

Undoubtedly, human evolution presents a rather intriguing element in anthropology. The Central East Africa region has been described as the cradle of numerous hominins, namely Homo habilis, Homo Rudolfensis, and Paranthropus Boisei that had both similar and different traits. Among other hominins, Homo habilis remain the most probable ancestry of present-day humans due to the numerous qualities that could be related to Homo sapiens.


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