Nov 14, 2018 in Informative

Safe Working Procedures in Health & Safety and Risk Assessment

Task 1

Concerning the college case study, working at the construction site is very hazardous. Most accidents that occur in a construction site are triggered by inadequate training, negligence, communication difficulties, and not observing primary care policy while working in the location. Civil engineering handles development of constructions. Civil engineers could be capable of working in all zones of the society began from small contractors for events linked to public organisations, government agencies, and the military. Bechal and Grice discuss that accidental occurrences in sites are one of the considerable and key matters that seriously occur at the construction site that regulate its daily activities employing machines at the building location. In case a construction firm does not account for prevention, consequences can turn out to be more severe and damage reputation of the construction company. This essay provides a brief procedural statement on how to ensure safe working while maintenance is carried out.

Project management purpose to improve the construction industry also requires reviving national and international economy. As a result, a civil engineer ought to be able to appraise the construction industry, physical working conditions, and constraints that influence the project in addition to the project management practice to make a skilled job. Health and safety control in the course of the project characterise a significant aspect for the project manager to guarantee that project is accomplished according to pre-planned models. The disaster that has been presented in the college case study situation in a construction process may present shortcomings on the project cost that are projected earlier. The main challenge of the startling failure during the project activity results in increased costs and delay time instead of the planned ones as in a time plane. As a result, the accident that has happened during project construction course will direct influence the project cost. However, the planned time for accomplishment is still reachable for a proficient management engineer who can organise activities between various departments to guarantee that all is done according to the previous plan. In addition, the manager should have the ability to solve problems when they happen so that the project will be done at the appropriate time.

Managers have responsibilities regarding provision and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) at engineering construction sites. Personal protective equipment will shield the personnel against health or safety risks at the site. It can comprise stuff like safety helmets, hand gloves, eye protection, high-visibility apparel, safety footwear, and safety harnesses to protect against minor physical injuries. The personal protective equipment serves in making the place of work safe and presupposes giving guidelines, processes, training, and control to motivate people to work safely and sensibly. In places where engineering measures and secure schemes of work have been employed, some hazards might still be applicable. Proper selection, maintenance, and dependable and accurate employee training are necessary for the equipment to be used during any possible emergencies such as flattened-air escape breathing device, gasmasks, and safety ropes. Besides, all personal protective equipment and clothing ought to be of safe design and construction, as well as being maintained in a hygienic and dependable fashion.

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Managers should take the fit and comfort of personal protective equipment into concern when choosing suitable items for their construction works. Summerhayes explains that personal protective equipment that fits correctly and is comfy to put on will motivate employees to use such personal protective equipment. Most protective devices are accessible in many sizes and precaution must be taken to select an appropriate size for each worker. If many different types of personal protective equipment are put on together, they must be compatible. If personal protective equipment does not fit well, it can lead to the disparity between being securely covered or riskily exposed. It might not offer a degree of protection preferred and may dishearten workers from usage. Injuries and ailments arising during construction practices hinder the overall project accomplishment since working days are planned in advance in order to accomplish the project and maximise on cost. The budget of the project comprises the direct cost of required equipment, workers’ benefits, and indirect cost. The proprietor and project are planned to minimise accidents considerably during construction practice to guarantee that all processes are going on in line with the planned rota so that setback in projects will be minimalized.

Injuries caused by an accidental incident may be initiated by a fall, conveyance cases, contact with equipment, and exposure to dangerous substances and surroundings. Transport and management of supplied construction necessities may also instigate an accident. Personal challenges are one of the many accidents happening during the construction process. The technology forms one of the most dangerous points in defining a safety construction site, including protection mechanisms that are integrated in machines to inform employees that there is an accident or to prevent injuries. For instance, switches prevent equipment from working when protection equipment is not in the right place.

The level of education for workers and civil engineering managers has a considerable influence on safety of construction site; thus, safety examination and compliance turn out to be a specialised work on development practice. Throughout the construction process, safety evaluation standards are used to warrant watchfulness and collaboration between workers, managers, and supervisors. Mindfulness includes understanding risks of operational practices, which comprise physical protections like barricades.

A permit-to-work system refers to a transcribed system of processes that must be considered to protect workers doing work, for example, relating to renovation, maintenance, or cleaning in considerably dangerous zones or with respect to hazardous processes. It encompasses mechanical, electrical, or process isolation measures or monitoring the atmosphere for occurrence of hazardous gasses. It starts in a methodical manner when the work is to be carried out, while assessing risks involved and safety measures to be considered. Circumstances when this is essential include cases when machinery could be started again with the operator still within it or relating to operating in limited spaces when there is a risk of chemical or physical exposure. The Permit to Work system for civil engineering activities in the college scenario works so as to ensure that it is possible to monitor what is taking place on the site. In addition, it also notifies a chief maintenance contractor of work done by others. Moreover, it alerts applicants of any distinctive conditions and safety measures they ought to consider in doing the work and of any eventualities and remedial actions necessary.

Permits to Work are managed by the Council and are disseminated to chief maintenance contractors so that they make use of them after-hours if they are meant to react to a worksite administered by others. The maintenance contractor can employ them as assistance to being up to speed on current events and activities at the construction site and the best person to contact. Besides, they are also beneficial in informing the applicant of contract of any distinctive conditions and precautions they ought to take in doing the work.

Compiling reports that back budgeting and cost control, financial auditing, asset tracking, through particular systems and data sources can be suitably done by proliance. Proliance can be used effectively for planning and monitoring project processes. Productive projects and programs necessitate management to consider numerous tasks, activities, milestones, and associations so as to complete the project on time. The Proliance Scheduling program manages multiple plans across projects and platforms, offering managers instant visibility of projects that are beyond schedule and that are unfavourable behind schedule. With instantaneous status tracking and cooperative contributions, organisations can streamline communication and provide programs and projects in the shortest time and at a cheap cost. At many sites, the most prevalent emergency is accidental fires. These rules can be used in planning for other emergencies, like flooding in quarries, underpass tunnels, work near a sea or rivers, waterworks, or danger from suffocation by toxic gasses. Emergency measures should be planned before work starts and general precautions should be put in place from the beginning of activities. A number of emergencies may necessitate evacuation of the site or section of location whereas others might ensure liberation of an injured operator. For instance, it may be essential to plan how somebody injured in a fall from a restrained space or within a limited plant site can be dealt with. It can be done by first aiders and emergency services before being taken to a place of security.

Task 2

The leading step in the risk management course is to pinpoint hazards linked to the construction work in focus. Risk identification makes one of the most significant phases of risk management and comprises determining, defining, describing, keeping a record of, and communicating risks. It should take place before they turn out to be a problem and harmfully influence the project. Construction engineers must contend with risks and uncertainties as a part of their expert work and, particularly, risks are characteristic of engineering models. Models play a fundamental role in construction although often characterise an abstract and perfect type of measured aspects of the target. Employing models, engineers can examine and obtain understanding of how an object will behave under stated circumstances. This section defines the design of a booklet on management of health & safety and risk assessment, which can be used in college in construction work within an engineering context.

A proper and adequate risk assessment ought to be carried out on all recommended practices and a health and safety plan should be organised by a planning manager and applied by a contractor. It is conducted when necessary during the construction and in other circumstances when it is considered necessary provided the nature and degree of risk. Evaluating the risk involves considering harshness of any injury that could happen and determining whether it is a slight isolated danger or the one that could lead to a serious injury. In addition, it should be established whether it is it a noteworthy hazard that could have wide-ranging and critical influences and there is a chance that someone will agonise from an injury. Control measures can be categorised from the highest level of safety and dependability to the lowest; this ranking is referred to as the hierarchy of control.

When people, employees, other contractors, and visitors come to the site for the first time, it is important that they receive information regarding site dangers and steps that have been considered for controlling risks. Management should ensure that individuals running the site can be quickly acknowledged provided there is a workplace central office. A site plan indicating office location should be placed at the location entrance together with an instruction that all visitors’ reports to the site office can be supportive. The chief contractor has an obligation to take rational steps to guarantee that only approved people are permitted to areas where construction work is being undertaken.

Workers who are going to work on the college site for the first time ought to be informed about possible risks, welfare services, and site regulations. One means of achieving this is by making sure that the site supervisor talks to them before operations begin. They may also be provided with an information sheet or appropriate information as in the case of the college, which can be shown on the notice board and openly put near the site entrance point. It is necessary to remember that many people are killed and seriously hurt during the first few days that they work at the site.

Contractors ought to generate method statements or other safe methods of work that match substantial risks in their risk valuations. It may oblige modification of local risk assessments at the time of the work to mirror any of the college accomplishments that are influenced by operations. Any existing safety measures that have been improvised like fire security measures and evacuation plans must not be allowed to be compromised by this process. Managerial controls should only be deliberated when other greater order control actions are not achievable to ensure protection from the danger. These are work approaches that are intended to minimise exposure to existing hazards, such as guaranteeing there is no illegal access of a person to a work site. For instance, employing a training program to show manual workers how to use new machinery minimises exposure to such hazards.

A variety of activities can help in guaranteeing that people have essential knowledge and skills to accomplish the work safe and sound. These include general construction orientation training and other exercises that may be adapted to the college site or a task the person is executing.

Available information that might be given includes site health and safety measures and approaches like the ones for emergency evacuations. Such information can be offered in numerous forms, including written and oral formats, for instance, during site-specific training, pre-start summits, or toolbox conferences. Information and tutoring are frequently offered at the same time. Additionally, managers may provide particular workplace guidelines during work, hence ensuring health and safety. Managers should be conscious of close supervision and give a level of control required to maintain health and safety of workers and assess workers’ capability to carry out the work.

Personal protective equipment is the lowest order control approach in the pyramid of controls. Personal protective equipment should only be reflected when other higher order control procedures are not practically feasible in order to increase safety from the hazard. It depends on the proper fit and usage of personal protective equipment and does nothing to alter the risk itself. It thus necessitates full training and adequate supervision to warrant compliance and efficiency. Broad-spectrum construction orientation training offers elementary understanding of construction activities, general applicable health and safety regulations, mutual hazards possible in construction work, and ways how related risks can be regulated.

Broad-spectrum construction orientation training must be offered on the college site by a registered training organisation and cover the subject explained in the stated course for general construction orientation training. The training has to include roles, duties, and rights of duty bearers, health and safety conference, and reporting procedures. In addition, it includes ideologies of risk management, mutual construction dangers and control approaches, safety information, and record keeping. 

An individual with a business responsibility must ensure that anyone who is to work in construction must have efficiently completed wide-ranging construction orientation training. For instance, project managers, engineers, foremen, overseers, inspectors, labourers, and trades personnel. The individual must not channel or allow a person to work unless this training has been accomplished. When necessary, the risk management practice code must be observed to manage related hazards. All college sites must have a contingency plan that has been developed for a particular site, considers its exact hazards, and covers a series of possible occurrences. All people at the construction site must receive required information, preparation, and instruction regarding implementation of the contingency plan. A dependable and operational means of communication ought to be instituted in all work areas for people involved to allow and guarantee efficient evacuation from hazard sites.

Rescue operations and a communication system to link with any required emergency services ought to be accessible and readily available at the college site. Emergency services in the contingency plan must evidently clarify how to react in various emergency cases, including how to evacuate people from the site in an organised way. Connection numbers for emergency services should be obviously shown. A record of all workers who are at the college construction site on a particular day should be archived so that all can be accounted for in the event of any emergency situation.

Having come a long way in the instructional design process, I did not have many challenges with development of the booklet. I defined a need that I wanted to tackle with instruction, decided on an objective, and fragmented the goal into steps, sub-steps, and sub-skills. In addition, I have a good idea of target institution that is to use the booklet, as well as of the context in which it will apply and use these new skills. Finally, I created a list of objectives indicating what I intended to offer people to be capable of doing at the end of the instruction. It also came along with items that will help me assess whether they can achieve it successfully. McGovern et al. discuss that general planning is achieved by formulating an instructional strategy. Formulating an instructional strategy comprises taking all records one has collected to this point and producing an operative plan for presenting the instruction to the target institute. At this phase, one must be capable of combining knowledge of learning and design concept with knowledge of learners and aims.

The standard reference for project checking and control is approximated based on the construction plan and related cash flow. To follow up on the project’s progress and its need to match the achievement progress with the planned one, it is necessary to demonstrate the accomplished task referred to planned plane. At the start of the project, job stipulations and contract particulars will be allocated to outline quality standards needed to evaluate the quality of the construction program. The overall cost offers a hint about enactment of the financial department by the finish of project activities. Thus, when the overall cost of the project is undervalued cost, the first consideration of the proprietor is that the project is under monetary control. However, in case it aims to extend predictable cost, then it will imply that there are some problems occurring during the construction process.

Project budget is assessed at the start of the project when it covers the anticipated overall cost, which will be necessary for cost management later. In project budget, the cost for job fundamentals under its class is comprised of the original valued cost. The job costs are segregated into work basics and required individual cost for the total cost of that project task. It is a business practice used to guarantee that the college staff have thoroughly competent workers for appropriate positions to ensure that the forthcoming business could be realised in the right way. Summerhayes has found that worker's qualifications bespeak skills, knowledge, and capacity to contribute actively to the decision-making process.

A contemporary construction practice uses project management for planning and manages project resources. The project management incorporates several phases to realise project aims whereby these stages contain identification of goals, as well as recruitment and development of new competent workers. Moreover, it contains the striving to motivate the workforce by giving them new welfare that can boost their output and confidence in work. In addition, it also takes care of the time plan for accomplishment and approximates the cost budget of the project.

In conclusion, health and safety engineers institute measures and design systems to protect people from falling sick or getting injured in accidental incidences. In turn, they also assist to keep property from being damaged and impaired functionally. They amalgamate the knowledge of engineering systems and health and safety measures to ensure that there is complete safety of workers. It includes protection from chemical substances, machinery, computer programs, equipment, and other end-user products that will not cause impairment of people or structures during project activities.

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